A Treatise on Xingyi Quan’s Three Jin 形意拳明暗剛柔三勁論 – By Master C S Tang

Image of Master C S Tang
The terms of Xingyi Quan’s three levels of practice—Ming Jin (明勁), An Jin (喑勁), Hua Jin (化勁)—came from Guo Yun Shen and were systematized by Sun Lu Tang, who proposed three levels of practice:

  1. training the Jing to transform into Qi
  2. training the Qi to transform into Shen
  3. training the Shen to return to emptiness.

Initially this theory was a concept without clear differentiation. In Dai family Xingyi Quan, each time one began to train a fist one had to practice it several times with a soft Jin at first and then a few times with a hard Jin before closing the movement. The intention was to practice slowly to begin with, ensuring that the movements were accurate, and to use the Yin energy completely, co-ordinating the movements between hands and feet. Through repeated practice one would collect the Jin in the body, accumulate a ball of Qi and release it with power and sound, with an integrated and explosive force in a single movement. Hebei Xingyi Quan inherited the above method but took a more direct approach, whereby one had to learn the hard Jin at first so that one would achieve power and could apply it quickly. Once one had mastered the fierce and hard way of practice, they would then begin to train the An Jin and Hua Jin.

The practice method of the three Jin is mainly used in the Five Elements Fists. Each fist is practiced in three ways. First, master the hard movement so that you can face the enemy; then begin to practice sets of the form; finally, go back to the beginning to train An Jin. When you are proficient you can train the Twelve Animal forms, before finally training the Five Elements Hua Jin.

The differences and training methods of the three Jin are described in detail below.[1]

Ming Jin

Hard Jin, long distance, extension, stepping hard into the front foot, fierce attacks, arm strength.

This is the power of metal, and explodes forward without thinking of retreat. As the Sword Classic of Yu Dayou states, “Every step moves forward, unmatched under heaven.” The Boxing Classic states, “Rushing up and rushing down the posture is like a tiger, fighting hard, entering hard without blocking.”

Ming Jin requires one to train the six harmony and four tips at first. The three centers (hearts) need to be solid and the Qi needs to sink into the Dan Tian. The body needs to prepare the five bows, and train so that one is stable and low, hard and fierce; one needs to have great courage. The Hun Yuan power, which is stable and accurate, must infuse the whole body, which has the effect of increasing power and speed. When striking one is able to knock the opponent back several feet, like “hanging a picture on a wall” or breaking the wall with a step. The classics state, let one “build one’s foundation, strengthen one’s body, the bones and body become solid like a rock of iron, and the form and energy field are imposing like the Tai mountain.” This is the foundational practice for changing the bones and transforming Jing into Qi.

An Jin

Soft Jin, short Jin, braking feet, blocking hand, the back foot following, using the Jing to hit, the power of the legs.

This is the wood energy; the steps are small, and thus you are able to advance and retreat. Each step is like an encampment. An Jin is the energy of being round outside but square inside: when training the outside looks soft and round and “moist,” but when issuing power the internal is square and hard and at right angles. When you strike your opponent, he will only retreat half a step but will have an internal injury. The classics state, let one “expand and lift their membranes, lengthen their tendons, the expansion is limitless.” This is the practice for training the tendons and muscles, and for transforming Qi into Shen.

Hua Jin

Elastic strength, twisting strength, the mystique of change, the wonder of dissolving.

At first one needs to develop a dragon’s waist—to twist and turn, to use opposing energy, and to hit slowly. The steps are lively—you will be moving in a zig-zag triangle—and the applications of the steps come from the Twelve Animals forms. The Five Fists contain more than six ways of dissipating the opponent’s energy. This form contains six changes and the fists attack in eight directions. The classics state, “Cleanse and empty the inside, lighten the body, the signs that indicate the interior is clean and empty: the flow of the Shen and Qi can be used, moving in a circle without hindering the moving and turning of the body, and one is as light as a feather.” Hua Jin is not categorized as bright or dark, hard or soft. Ming Jin is Yang and An Jin is Yin; thus, Hua Jin is a mixture of Yin and Yang, with Yin and Yang interpenetrating each other. The Shen and the intention penetrate the whole body, washing the bone marrow; this is training the Shen to return to emptiness.

The three Jin, from a theoretical perspective, are divided as above. Thus, Ming Jin is Jin or power that is easily seen; An Jin is hidden and cannot easily be detected; Ha Jin is negating the enemy’s force and returning it to the enemy.

During the training process, each level of training of the Five Elements has a strict demarcation. As with hand work, foot work, and body methods, each fist has a unique and fixed training method. It is a complete and complicated process.

Ming Jin is in the hands; the An Jin is in the elbows; Hua Jin is in the body. Ming Jin is hard; An Jin is soft; Hua Jin is elastic.

Ming Jin trains the Jing; An Jin trains the Qi; Hua Jin trains the Shen.

Ming Jin goes out and returns in a straight line; An Jin only begins when stillness reaches its zenith; Hua Jin remains inside and is not revealed.

Ming Jin uses power; An Jin uses Jin; Hua Jin uses the intention.

Finally, they all interpenetrate each other, shifting the soft to the hard and shifting the hard to the soft. Hua Jin is in complete control of Ming Jin and An Jin, mixed into one body.

The three Jin are shown within the Xingyi Quan system, with form and intention, as below:

  • The Five Element Fists contain the three Jin:
    Ming Jin: Pi Quan, Zuan Quan
    An Jin: Beng Quan, Pao Quan
    Hua Jin: Heng Quan
  • The Twelve Animal forms are also divided into the three Jin:
    Ming Jin: Tiger, Horse, Chicken, Eagle
    An Jin: Bird, Snake, Bear, Alligator
    Hua Jin: Dragon, Monkey, Swallow, Sparrowhawk

[1] Modern practitioners do not explicitly demarcate three levels of training Jin, usually focusing on training Ming Jin (as it looks good and is fierce) and stopping there. As for An Jin and Hua Jin, many do not understand them and so do not practice them. Most people think that practicing slowly and using less force is An Jin, and do not understand the way to practice Hua Jin at all.

For more on Xingyi Quan, and on Master C S Tang‘s work, visit his website: http://cstang.www3.50megs.com/index_en.html

© 2013 Singing Dragon blog. All Rights Reserved.

The Origins of the Modern Tongue Diagnosis, with Ioannis Solos

Picture of Ioannis SolosA few months ago, I was having tea with a Chinese medicine professor, discussing my plans about making the ancient tongue diagnosis texts available in English. His first reaction was quite negative and disapproving. His arguments were that “nobody in China reads these books, why would the ‘foreigners’ wish to study them?”, and also “the classics lack photographic illustrations”.

Instead of answering these questions, in this entry I will briefly discuss about how the modern TCM tongue method managed to replace the old established classical tongue diagnosis system.

Traditionally, since the Yuan Dynasty, tongue diagnosis was intimately intertwined with herbal medicine. Therefore, the Gold Mirror Records, the Tongue Reflection in Cold Damage, and all the monographs up until the late Min Guo period, such as the Tongue Diagnosis in the National Medicine (which I think was the last important tongue text published pre-1960) all discuss tongue theory together with formulae. This approach survived until the late 1950’s because the transmission of this skill was still strongly adhering to the tradition. Around 1955-8 appeared the last standardized and annotated versions of the Gold Mirror Records and Tongue Reflection in Cold Damage quite signifying the end of this era.


The 1960 first edition of the "Chinese Medicine Tongue Diagnosis"

The 1960 first edition of the Chinese Medicine Tongue Diagnosis

The modern Tongue Diagnosis –as we know it today- began in July 1960, with the publication of the book Chinese Medicine Tongue Diagnosis.

Chen Ze-lin and Li Nai-min both describe this as being “the first specialist work on tongue Diagnosis after the formation of the P.R.C.” – Li Nai-min was also quoted to have said that: “The book inherited the substance and essence of tongue diagnosis in Chinese Medicine, and new concepts were put forward”.

Anyhow, it appears that the “new ideology” wished to convert the tongue into a universal diagnosis method, applicable in every branch of TCM. This book was therefore produced by “summarizing and organizing” the ancient bibliography. Three years later, in May 1963, the Tongue Fur Illustrated Manual offered a large collection of tongue photographs together with a brief TCM syndrome differentiation.

The back cover of the "Chinese Medicine Tongue Diagnosis"

The back cover of the Chinese Medicine Tongue Diagnosis


These books quite deviated from the established traditions. Herbal medicine was removed and there were no more illustrations pointing to clinical subtleties. Also, these books were not the outcome of clinical experience and did not offer a significant development following classic knowledge. However, they soon became the cornerstone tongue texts for the new era.

Either-way, by severing the links with the past immediately appeared a much bigger problem: the younger doctors soon became incapable of prescribing by looking at the tongue (according to the traditional system, a doctor could – more or less – form an idea about what formula to apply by just observing the tongue). Eventually the ancient skill transmuted into a mere “confirmation tool” for verifying the state of the pulse and symptomatology, thus denying 800 years of tongue diagnosis development.


Author's copy of the "Tongue Diagnosis in the National Medicine"

Author’s copy of the Tongue Diagnosis in the National Medicine

Sadly, most tongue books and monographs published since then strictly adhere to the ideas and the format brought forward in 1960-63.

The Cultural Revolution which followed a couple of years later, the abolition of the master-disciple system in Medicine, and the way TCM was taught in Colleges after 1977, made this silent change permanent.

In the west we were only introduced to the modern approach through the established textbooks and popular tongue manuals, never really knowing that the tongue had a much different and colourful past.

Only in recent years I have seen a few volumes published in China presenting non-photographic illustrations together with formulary, which I believe is a good indication about the future.



The description page of the 1963 edition of the "Tongue fur Illustrated Manual"

The description page of the 1963 edition of the Tongue fur Illustrated Manual

I will close this entry with a short anecdote: In the early 80’s, the BUCM wished to produce a tongue diagnosis book, for western readers. Some teachers were approached to write the text, first in Chinese, and then others would do the translation. Nevertheless, when younger professors suggested translating the 1960 edition of the Chinese Medicine Tongue Diagnosis (which is thought as the established classic), the old-timers replied that it cannot be used. The explanation given was that the original authors had to produce a comprehensive tongue summary in a very short time, by “copy-pasting” stuff from classics and putting together a collage in accordance to the ideology of the realm.

I am not really sure if such a book was ever published, but the story clearly depicts how the ancient tongue diagnosis was massacred, in order for a universally applicable comprehensive summary to be produced.


All illustrations come from the author’s private collection of tongue manuscripts.

© 2012 Singing Dragon blog. All Rights Reserved.

For more on the historical, theoretical and cultural aspects of the tongue theory see Ioannis Solos’ blog: http://ioannissolos.blogspot.co.uk/



Calligraphy and Spiritual Cultivation

Beginning with a demonstration of  the calligraphy of the dragon symbol, Master Zhongxian Wu shows how the art of calligraphy fits into the shamanic healing traditions of China.


Master Zhongxian Wu is the lineage holder of four different schools of Qigong and martial arts. He was Director of the Shaanxi Province Association for Somatic Science and the Shaanxi Association for the Research of Daoist Nourishing Life Practices. Since 1988, Master Wu has instructed thousands of students, both Eastern and Western. He synthesizes wisdom and experience for beginning and advancing practitioners, as well as for patients seeking healing, in his unique and professionally-designed courses and workshops. Please visit www.masterwu.net for details about his teachings.

© 2012 Singing Dragon blog. All Rights Reserved.

Gold Mirrors and Tongue Reflections – A Brief Introduction to the Academic Beginnings of the Tongue Diagnosis Tradition

Picture of Ioannis SolosBy Ioannis Solos

In pre-modern China, outbreaks of infectious/communicable diseases such as typhoid, plague, influenza, smallpox etc. were terribly common and dangerously contagious. Therefore, during such times, taking the pulse, speaking with the patient and even using acupuncture would often be a reckless way to interact with the sick.

For remedying this situation there was a great need for the development of a new approach in diagnosis, so physicians would be able to provide appropriate treatment while having minimal physical contact with the patient.

The first systematic Tongue Diagnosis system first appeared during the Jin and Yuan Dynasties, as an alternative to the Pulse method. It derived from the works of Scholar Ao (real name and period unknown) who was perhaps the first doctor to produce an ensemble of 12 tongue illustrations, in which appeared the common ailments of his era. Along with every image he also suggested a formula which – in his opinion – would be sufficient to appropriately manage each condition.

However, his manuscript, known as Little pieces of Gold (Shang Han Dian Dian Jin) was never meant to be public, and it appears that it has only been transmitted from teacher to selected disciples within closed circles, for centuries. This fact is also well described in Xue Li-zhai’s preface to the Scholar Ao’s Gold Mirror records, where it is said that:

‘Gentleman Ao set his own rules on the tongue diagnosis, and he thought that [they summarized] the essence for this special system. At the same time he wrote two books, the Little Pieces of Gold and the Gold Mirror Records, both [to be kept] as a secret and not be passed on. During [Emperor] Zheng De’s Wu-Chen year (1508) I met a person who was able to observe the tongue and prescribe [accordingly], and always with good clinical results. So I invited him to my home and tried to inquire about his method, but he refused to further elaborate about it.’

Page from "Scholar Ao's Gold Mirror Records"

A page from the Imperial compilation of the “Scholar Ao’s Gold Mirror Records” Underneath each illustration there is a short explanation and a treatment approach including an herbal formula. Qing Dynasty circa 1850.

Historically, in 1341, a scholar from the Hanlin Imperial Academy named Du Qing-bi acquired a copy of Ao’s manuscript. He edited the original text and further contributed to it, with an additional 24 illustrations to a total of 36. He therefore presented a more complete overview of the various tongue reflections according to his own ideas. His book was eventually named Scholar Ao’s Gold Mirror records (Ao Shi Shang Han Jin Jing Lu) (Illustration 1). This book was very easy to use, but also extremely profound. It demanded that the doctors work out the essence of the tongue differentiation system by studying the 36 tongues and then further developing their own personal understanding via clinical practice and meticulous research.

Du Qing-bi in his original introduction summarizes this as follows:

‘The earliest twelve tongues [in Ao’s manuscript] unfortunately did not cover all the [possible] patterns [and therefore] I [personally] added twenty four illustrations and [the appropriate] treatment method on the left side, containing the formula. From each section, [you should] advance progressively, in order to determine the subtleties of life and death.’

However, in rural areas where there were no doctors, common people could also match the patient’s tongue to the appropriate illustration (much like in Ao’s original system), and prescribe medicine in the hope that the patient could be saved.

Ma Chong-ru records this in his endnote as follows:

‘Although some places may lack good doctors, however they should have some reference materials to assist the situation. For those who have no [such materials to provide some] cure; only the destiny may determine their life and death. [Therefore] the easiest path to treat the cold damage is by using cut-blocks for printing and to spread [the knowledge].’

Illustration from “Essential Teachings on Tongue Observation in Cold Damage”

A tongue illustration from the “Essential Teachings on Tongue Observation in Cold Damage” and part of the summary on the grey tongue theory. Rare handwritten copy in the author’s possession, late Qing Dynasty, Guangxu era.

During the Ming Dynasty, and following the popularity of the Scholar Ao’s Gold Mirror Records, appeared the Essential Teachings on Tongue Observation in Cold Damage (Shang Han Guan She Xin Fa) (now lost in the print version). This book was a lot more detailed, and containing a total of 137 tongues. (Illustration 2) The Essential Teachings on Tongue Observation in Cold Damage provided each tongue with a lengthy explanation, formulae, and a poem to assist memorization. Although significantly more detailed than Ao’s manuscript, it never surpassed its predecessor in popularity. It appears that matching up the patient’s tongue to one of the 137 illustrations was a much harder task, and the lengthy explanations ultimately confused the doctors who wanted to fathom the author’s “root” methodology.

Eventually, during the Qing Dynasty, Zhang Deng edited/simplified the Essential Teachings on Tongue Observation in Cold Damage down to 120 tongues. Like he states in his introduction to The Tongue Reflection in Cold Damage:

‘[In this work] I corrected the mistakes appearing on the text of Guan She Xin Fa, dismissed all of its disordered inaccuracies, and thrown away the information that was not concerned with the cold damage. I have also added materials from my father’s case studies and notes on treatment, as well as materials from my own personal experiences. In total there are one hundred and twenty illustrations.’

A handwritten version of “Tongue Reflection in Cold Damage”

A handwritten version of the “Tongue Reflection in Cold Damage” with coloured illustrations. This variation also fully presents the structure of the formulae mentioned in the text, in accordance with the tradition in “Scholar Ao’s Gold Mirror Records”. Late Qing or early Min Guo manuscript.

The Tongue Reflection in Cold Damage (Illustration 3) was much simpler and easier to use, and it was reprinted continuously until the 1960’s, when it was finally replaced by modern tongue manuals.

To summarize, the Scholar Ao’s Gold Mirror records and the Tongue Reflection in Cold Damage have intimately influenced the development of modern Tongue Diagnosis, and they are still regarded as the core materials for exploring the theory of tongue diagnosis in depth.

These days, I believe that in order to better facilitate the westward transmission of Chinese Medicine, scholars should present complete ideas about their specialty, and provide a functional understanding of both the content and the history of their chosen field. In my opinion, the best way to accomplish this is not by randomly translating famous books or by providing many alternative translations of the same texts over and over again, but by presenting collections of important manuscripts arranged in such a way that can clearly demonstrate how each branch of TCM was developed.

In my humble book the Gold Mirrors and Tongue Reflections, I provide a translation of both the Scholar Ao’s Gold Mirror records (Ao Shi Shang Han Jin Jing Lu) and the Tongue Reflection in Cold Damage (Shang Han She Jian).

Having been researching classical tongue diagnosis for nearly a decade, I now wish to present my modest collection of influential tongue monographs, not only with the publication of this book but also through a companion volume currently in progress. I hope that my work will positively contribute to the further development of tongue research in the west, and assist my fellow TCM practitioners to develop a proper understanding on the academic origins of Tongue Diagnosis before accessing modern manuals.

All illustrations come from the author’s private collection of tongue manuscripts.

© 2012 Singing Dragon blog. All Rights Reserved.


Novels as journeys deep into the human heart: Marte Brengle remembers her grandmother, the novelist Evelyn Eaton

Marte Brengle is the novelist Evelyn Eaton‘s eldest grandchild and only granddaughter. She is also a writer, and manages the family publishing company, Logan Books. Here, she shares some personal memories of her remarkable grandmother and reflects on the personal significance of Eaton’s books, Go Ask the River and I Send a Voice.

Photo: “Four generations of women – Gran, my daughter Meghan, me and Mom – taken just a few months before Gran died. I think it represents all that was happy about our relationships.” (Courtesy of Marte Brengle)

Your grandmother, the novelist Evelyn Eaton, lived an enormously rich and varied life. How much did all this come through when you were growing up? Or are you still finding out about her?

I didn’t know a lot about Gran’s life until I read her autobiography in 1974. She told us some stories about her life, but there was a lot she didn’t talk about. My third novel is based on her life, my mother’s, and my own, and in re-reading Gran’s autobiographical books I have had to extrapolate and fill in the blanks a lot. I wish I had thought to ask her to annotate a copy of her autobiography, because as I’ve re-read it this past year I can see she put in some very subtle hints about the parts of the story she left out. In many ways, Go Ask the River is Gran’s story just as much as it is Hung Tu’s. The paralells are quite striking. I named my son after her father, since my son was born 60 years almost to the day after his namesake was killed at the battle of Vimy Ridge.

Evelyn’s books ranged across wide territory. The two in the Singing Dragon list cover very different worlds – the life of the Chinese Tang dynasty poet Hung Tu, and initiation into Native American Sweat Lodge ceremonies. Do you think that for her there was a connection between the two?

My grandmother was always interested in the supernatural world, and the ways in which spiritual beliefs shape people’s lives. She could see the supernatural quite clearly. I think she believed she was the reincarnation of Hung Tu, and also the descendant of Native Canadians, so she herself provided the connection between the two. She always said: “There are many paths to the center, and all of them are true.”

Her book about ancient China brings to life a completely different world, and as Chungliang Al Huang’s Foreword recounts, was based on a strange and intense experience she had while a war correspondent in China. And of course as a Native American Medicine Woman, she must have carried much information she could not talk about. Was this obvious in meeting her? What was she like as a grandmother?

Gran always seemed to understand me, and what was in my mind, far better than my mother did. Even though we weren’t together much (separated by geography), I always felt I could tell her anything and ask her anything and she’d understand what I meant even if I didn’t express it properly. She understood my brothers in the same way. To me it was obvious that she was deeply connected to the supernatural world, and it was clear to some other people as well. I don’t know how she was perceived by the world at large, but clearly she was a remarkable person and would have gotten anyone’s attention.

I remember in the spring of 1975, my husband and I took the train from our home in Kansas to visit Gran in California. Gran could tell the future with a pack of ordinary playing cards and she was very good at it, although it wasn’t something she liked to do because of the possibility of seeing something bad. I asked her to read the cards for me. At the end of the process, the person whose future is being told is asked to pick three cards while thinking of a question that can be answered yes or no (without asking it out loud). My silent question was “Will I have a child within two years?” Gran looked over the cards and immediately said “The answer is yes, and if you’re asking about a child, it will be a boy.” When I was expecting my first child, my doctor – who didn’t to ultrasounds, amniocentesis or any of those things – told me she thought I was expecting a girl, so I went through the whole pregnancy thinking I’d have a daughter. But, as Gran predicted, the child was a boy, born almost exactly two years after the prediction.

Did she continue to be interested in China and the Oriental arts throughout her life?

I think she did. She always had Chinese artifacts in her homes, and she burned Chinese incense in her writing room before she began burning sage. I inherited some of the embroidered silk panels she brought back from her trip as a war correspondent. They’re faded now, but I keep them on the wall as a reminder of Gran.

Do you know what took her to the immersion in the Arapaho healing traditions that occupied the last years of her life?

If you read her autobiography, The Trees and Fields Went the Other Way, you can see how she encountered Native spirit guides very early in life. She always connected with people, and I think when she moved to California it was only natural for the Paiutes to come to trust and accept her. It wasn’t an easy path, because they were quite rightly wary of revealing too much to outsiders (and indeed, the Sweat Lodge to which she once belonged has been closed to outsiders for many years now, as Eagle Man’s descendants think differently about the inclusion of non-Indians).

I Send a Voice is such a powerful account of the process of change and becoming. Did her relationship with the family change also during that time?

We were separated by great distances while this was happening – my family in the midwest and Gran in California. She didn’t talk about it much in the beginning, so we weren’t affected by her new understanding of the universe. After my mother and two younger brothers moved to California, they got involved in the Sweat Lodge and it was clear that it had a great personal connection for them as well. I attended one Sweat Lodge ceremony and was so overwhelmed by it that I turned down later invitations to join in.

What happened to her pipe after her death?

My mother inherited Gran’s pipe. She talked about giving it to other people several times over the years, but my brothers and I always maintained that it should stay in the family. My mother left no instructions about Gran’s pipe when she died, so it remains with my second brother, who bought the house Mom lived in and took care of her during her last days. My brothers and I have talked a bit about what should happen to it but we have never really decided one way or the other.

You are also a writer – how did you grandmother and her books inspire your own writing?

Although I had done a lot of technical writing and had written magazine articles, reviews and the like, when I first tried my hand at writing a novel it took me more than twenty years to complete it! The good thing about that is that I was a much better writer by the time I finally got it done. My two published novels are stories about people trying to make peace with their pasts. No high drama and flashy action, just human stories and human nature. My third novel is based on my grandmother’s life, my mother’s and my own. It will be a very long book, covering the time span from 1902 to about 1980.

Gran’s stories were also about human problems and human nature. With Go Ask the River, especially, she went deeply into the human heart. I did not start out thinking I was going to be a writer. I tried a lot of other things before going back to the novel I’d half-heartedly started. I realized there was a better story to be told than what I’d written, and I drew on some of the advice Gran gave me when I went back to work on it. She said you have to know your characters almost as well as you know yourself. I didn’t quite manage that, because my characters kept suprising me by saying and doing things that I didn’t consciously have in mind, but I did try to keep them, and what they said and did, as realistic and true to life as I possibly could.

Evelyn Eaton (1902-1983) was born in Montreux, Switzerland to Anglophile Canadian parents, and educated in England and France. She began writing while still in her teens; her first collection of poems was published in England in 1923 (the same year that she was presented at court) and her first novel in 1925. She became an American citizen at the age of 42, and was a war correspondent in China, Burma and India in 1945, then a lecturer at Columbia University from 1949 to 1951. Partly Native American (related to the Algonquians of New Brunswick, Canada) her later years became increasingly focused on Native American culture and mysticism. She wrote thirteen novels, five volumes of poetry, two collections of short stories, and seven other books. For many years she was a contributor to The New Yorker and other journals.

Copyright © Singing Dragon 2012.

VIDEO: Yijing, Shamanic Oracle of China – An introduction by Richard Bertschinger

Richard Bertschinger studied for ten years with the Taoist sage and Master, Gia-fu Feng. He is a practising acupuncturist, teacher of Chinese healing arts, and translator of ancient Chinese texts. He has just published a new translation of the Book of Change, Yijing, Shamanic Oracle of China: A New Book of Change, which he has been working on for the past thirty years.

In this video, Richard talks about the essence of change as explored through the Yijing, and on the elemental energies represented through the book’s trigrams.



Read a Preview of Yijing, Shamanic Oracle of China »

Copyright © Singing Dragon 2012.